Mastrantonio V, D Porretta, V Lucchesi, N Guz, NS Çagatay, R Bellini, J Vontas, S Urbanelli
Insecticide resistance is an informative model for studying the appearance of adaptive traits. Simultaneously, understanding how many times resistance mutations originate is essential to design effective resistance management. In the mosquito Culex pipiens, target–site resistance to the insecticide diflubenzuron (DFB) has been recently found in Italian and Turkish populations. Three point mutations confer it at the codon 1043 of the chitin synthase 1 gene (chs-1): I1043L, I1043M, and I1043F. Whether the resistant mutations originated independently from different susceptible alleles or sequentially from resistant alleles and whether resistant alleles from Italy and Turkey have originated once or multiple times remain unresolved. Here, we sequenced a fragment of the chs-1 gene carrying the resistant mutations and inferred the phylogenetic relationships among susceptible and resistant alleles. Confirming previous findings, we found the three mutations in Italy and the I1043M in Turkey. Notably, the I1043F was also found for the first time in Turkish samples, highlighting the need for extensive monitoring activities. Phylogenetic analyses are consistent with an independent origin of the I1043F, I1043M, and I1043L mutations from different susceptible alleles and with multiple independent origins of the Italian and Turkish I1043M and I1043F alleles.